sábado, 21 de mayo de 2011

Reporte indirecto

Reportes indirectos
Por lo general cuando se reporta lo que dice una persona, no se utilizan las palabras exactas que este utilizo en su discurso, pero se nos informa de manera indirecta su discurso.
Existen diferentes estructuras dependiendo si se busca transformar una oración afirmativa, hacer una solicitud o una pregunta, por ejemplo:
Reportar ordenes: Es necesario realizar cambio de persona, y expresiones de tiempo
·         Ordenes positivas:
Father: "Do your homework."    àDiscurso directo
Padre: Has tu tarea
Father told me to do my homework.  àReporte indirecto
Mi padre me dijo que hiciera mi tarea.
·         Ordenes negativas
Teacher: "Don't talk to your neighbour."  àDiscurso directo
Profesor: No hables con tu vecino.
The teacher told me not to talk to my neighbour.  àReporte indirecto
El professor me dijo que no hablara con mi vecino.
Reportar preguntas: Al igual que en el reporte de ordenes es necesario ralizar cambios en la persona, y expresiones de tiempo.
·         Pregunta con si o no
Peter: "Do you play football?" àDiscurso directo
Pedro: Tu juegas futbol?
Peter asked me whether (if) I played football. àReporte indirecto
Pedro me pregunto si yo jugaba futbol
·         Preguntas con palabras de interrogacion
Peter: "When do you play football?" àDiscurso directo
Cuando tu juegas futbol?
Peter asked me when I played football. àReporte indirecto
Peter me pregunto cuando yo jugaba futbol.
Reporte de discurso, forma gramatical

·         Si la oracion se inicia en el presente , no hay retardo de los tiempos verbales en el discurso reportado.
Susan: "I work in an office."  àDiscurso directo
Susan:  Yo trabajo en una oficina
Susan says that she works in an office. àReporte indirecto
Susan dice que ella trabaja en una oficina.


De forma directaà A forma indirecta
Ejemplos
Simple present
Simple past
Peter: I work in the garden
Peter said that he worked in the garden
Simple past

Past perfect
Peter: I worked in the garden
Peter said that he had worked in the garden
Present perfect
Peter: I have worked in the garden
Past perfect
Peter: I had worked in the garden
Will
Would
Peter: I will work in the garden
Peter said that he would work in the garden
Can
Could
Peter: I can work in the garden
Peter said that he could work in the garden
Am/are/is
Was/were
Peter: I am working in the garden
Peter said that he was working in the garden
Was/were

Had been
Peter: I was working in the garden
Peter said that he had been working in the garden
Has been
Peter: I have been working in the garden
Had been
Peter: I had been working in the garden






De forma directaà A forma indirecta
Ejemplos
Simple present
Simple past
I learn the lesson
She said that she learned the lesson
Simple past

Past perfect
I learned the lesson
She said that she had learned the lesson
Present perfect
I have learned the lesson
Past perfect
I had learned the lesson
Will
Would
I will learn the lesson
She said that she would learn the lesson
Can
Could
I can learn the lesson
She said that she could learn the lesson
Am/are/is
Was/were
I am learning the lesson
She said that she was learning the lesson
Was/were

Had been
I was learing the lesson
She said that she had been learning the lesson
Has been
I have been learning the lesson
Had been
I had been learning the lesson



Si la oracion contiene una expresión de tiempo, debe cambiarse también.
Peter: "I worked in the garden yesterday."  àDiscurso directo
Peter said that he had worked in the garden the day before.
àReporte indirecto


This (evening)
That (evening)
Today/this day
that day
These (days)
Those (days)
Now
Then
(a week) ago
(a week) before
Last weekend
The weekend before/ the previous weekend
Here
There
Next(week)
The following (week)
Tomorrow
The next/ following day


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